Gaussian Process uses multivariate Gaussian as a prior for Bayesian inference computing the posterior. GP predictions have high confidence around training data and low otherwise. Bayesian optimization updates GP via an acquisition function that trade-off exploration and exploitation
Random forest is an ensemble learning method for classification (and regression) that operate by traing a multitude of decision trees and bagging the class that is the mode of individual trees. E.g. forest output 9 trees' output
Computer panorama stitching matches SIFT keypoints from multiple images, fits the Affine transformation via RANSAC, to build a single panoramic image.
Spatial Pyramid Histogram accurately finds out logo in starbucks.
Latent semantic indexing constructs a semantic space wherein terms and documents are closely associated one another. It use SVD and PCA to construct pseudo documents which idenfity the latent concepts. Documents are clustered into two semantic space
Page Rank - Here uses PMTK sample pages to construct link graph, introduces a random perturbation to construct stationary Markov Chain which converges to stationary page rank . An inverted index search returns pages by its rank.